Summary Message direction Message type Section 1. Client to Kerberos KRB_TGS_REQ 5.4.1 2. Kerberos to client KRB_TGS_REP or 5.4.2 KRB_ERROR 5.9.1
The TGS exchange between a client and the Kerberos Ticket-Granting Server is initiated by a client when it wishes to obtain authentication credentials for a given server (which might be registered in a remote realm), when it wishes to renew or validate an existing ticket, or when it wishes to obtain a proxy ticket. In the first case, the client must already have acquired a ticket for the Ticket-Granting Service using the AS exchange (the ticket-granting ticket is usually obtained when a client initially authenticates to the system, such as when a user logs in). The message format for the TGS exchange is almost identical to that for the AS exchange. The primary difference is that encryption and decryption in the TGS exchange does not take place under the client's key. Instead, the session key from the ticket-granting ticket or renewable ticket, or sub-session key from an Authenticator is used. As is the case for all application servers, expired tickets are not accepted by the TGS, so once a renewable or ticket-granting ticket expires, the client must use a separate exchange to obtain valid tickets.
The TGS exchange consists of two messages: A request (KRB_TGS_REQ) from the client to the Kerberos Ticket-Granting Server, and a reply (KRB_TGS_REP or KRB_ERROR). The KRB_TGS_REQ message includes information authenticating the client plus a request for credentials. The authentication information consists of the authentication header (KRB_AP_REQ) which includes the client's previously obtained ticket- granting, renewable, or invalid ticket. In the ticket-granting ticket and proxy cases, the request may include one or more of: a list of network addresses, a collection of typed authorization data to be sealed in the ticket for authorization use by the application server, or additional tickets (the use of which are described later). The TGS reply (KRB_TGS_REP) contains the requested credentials, encrypted in the session key from the ticket-granting ticket or renewable ticket, or if present, in the subsession key from the Authenticator (part of the authentication header). The KRB_ERROR message contains an error code and text explaining what went wrong. The KRB_ERROR message is not encrypted. The KRB_TGS_REP message contains information which can be used to detect replays, and to associate it with the message to which it replies. The KRB_ERROR message also contains information which can be used to associate it with the message to which it replies, but the lack of encryption in the KRB_ERROR message precludes the ability to detect replays or fabrications of such messages.