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The need for FTP to support page structure derives principally from the need to support efficient transmission of files between TOPS-20 systems, particularly the files used by NLS.

The file system of TOPS-20 is based on the concept of pages. The operating system is most efficient at manipulating files as pages. The operating system provides an interface to the file system so that many applications view files as sequential streams of characters. However, a few applications use the underlying page structures directly, and some of these create holey files.

A TOPS-20 disk file consists of four things: a pathname, a page table, a (possibly empty) set of pages, and a set of attributes.

The pathname is specified in the RETR or STOR command. It includes the directory name, file name, file name extension, and generation number.

The page table contains up to 2**18 entries. Each entry may be EMPTY, or may point to a page. If it is not empty, there are also some page-specific access bits; not all pages of a file need have the same access protection.

A page is a contiguous set of 512 words of 36 bits each.

The attributes of the file, in the File Descriptor Block (FDB), contain such things as creation time, write time, read time, writer's byte-size, end-of-file pointer, count of reads and writes, backup system tape numbers, etc.

Note that there is NO requirement that entries in the page table be contiguous. There may be empty page table slots between occupied ones. Also, the end of file pointer is simply a number. There is no requirement that it in fact point at the "last" datum in the file. Ordinary sequential I/O calls in TOPS-20 will cause the end of file pointer to be left after the last datum written, but other operations may cause it not to be so, if a particular programming system so requires.

In fact, in both of these special cases, "holey" files and end-of-file pointers NOT at the end of the file, occur with NLS data files.

The TOPS-20 paged files can be sent with the FTP transfer parameters: TYPE L 36, STRU P, and MODE S (in fact, any mode could be used).

Each page of information has a header. Each header field, which is a logical byte, is a TOPS-20 word, since the TYPE is L 36.

The header fields are:

Word 0: Header Length.

The header length is 5.

Word 1: Page Index.

If the data is a disk file page, this is the number of that page in the file's page map. Empty pages (holes) in the file are simply not sent. Note that a hole is NOT the same as a page of zeros.

Word 2: Data Length.

The number of data words in this page, following the header. Thus, the total length of the transmission unit is the Header Length plus the Data Length.

Word 3: Page Type.

A code for what type of chunk this is. A data page is type 3, the FDB page is type 2.

Word 4: Page Access Control.

The access bits associated with the page in the file's page map. (This full word quantity is put into AC2 of an SPACS by the program reading from net to disk.)

After the header are Data Length data words. Data Length is currently either 512 for a data page or 31 for an FDB. Trailing zeros in a disk file page may be discarded, making Data Length less than 512 in that case.


Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia