Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
2. RTP and RTCP Packet Forms and Protocol Behavior

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2. RTP and RTCP Packet Forms and Protocol Behavior

2. RTP and RTCP Packet Forms and Protocol Behavior

The section "RTP Profiles and Payload Format Specification" enumerates a number of items that can be specified or modified in a profile. This section addresses these items. Generally, this profile follows the default and/or recommended aspects of the RTP specification.

RTP data header
The standard format of the fixed RTP data header is used (one marker bit).

Payload types
Static payload types are defined in Section 6.

RTP data header additions
No additional fixed fields are appended to the RTP data header.

RTP data header extensions
No RTP header extensions are defined, but applications operating under this profile may use such extensions. Thus, applications should not assume that the RTP header X bit is always zero and should be prepared to ignore the header extension. If a header extension is defined in the future, that definition must specify the contents of the first 16 bits in such a way that multiple different extensions can be identified.

RTCP packet types
No additional RTCP packet types are defined by this profile specification.

RTCP report interval
The suggested constants are to be used for the RTCP report interval calculation.

SR/RR extension
No extension section is defined for the RTCP SR or RR packet.

SDES use
Applications may use any of the SDES items described. While CNAME information is sent every reporting interval, other items should be sent only every fifth reporting interval.

The RTP default security services are also the default under this profile.

String-to-key mapping
A user-provided string ("pass phrase") is hashed with the MD5 algorithm to a 16-octet digest. An n-bit key is extracted from the digest by taking the first n bits from the digest. If several keys are needed with a total length of 128 bits or less (as for triple DES), they are extracted in order from that digest. The octet ordering is specified in RFC 1423, Section 2.2. (Note that some DES implementations require that the 56-bit key be expanded into 8 octets by inserting an odd parity bit in the most significant bit of the octet to go with each 7 bits of the key.)

It is suggested that pass phrases are restricted to ASCII letters, digits, the hyphen, and white space to reduce the the chance of transcription errors when conveying keys by phone, fax, telex or email.

The pass phrase may be preceded by a specification of the encryption algorithm. Any characters up to the first slash (ASCII 0x2f) are taken as the name of the encryption algorithm. The encryption format specifiers should be drawn from RFC 1423 or any additional identifiers registered with IANA. If no slash is present, DES-CBC is assumed as default. The encryption algorithm specifier is case sensitive.

The pass phrase typed by the user is transformed to a canonical form before applying the hash algorithm. For that purpose, we define return, tab, or vertical tab as well as all characters contained in the Unicode space characters table. The transformation consists of the following steps: (1) convert the input string to the ISO 10646 character set, using the UTF-8 encoding as specified in Annex P to ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993 (ASCII characters require no mapping, but ISO 8859-1 characters do); (2) remove leading and trailing white space characters; (3) replace one or more contiguous white space characters by a single space (ASCII or UTF-8 0x20); (4) convert all letters to lower case and replace sequences of characters and non-spacing accents with a single character, where possible. A minimum length of 16 key characters (after applying the transformation) should be enforced by the application, while applications must allow up to 256 characters of input.

Underlying protocol
The profile specifies the use of RTP over unicast and multicast UDP. (This does not preclude the use of these definitions when RTP is carried by other lower-layer protocols.)

Transport mapping
The standard mapping of RTP and RTCP to transport-level addresses is used.

No encapsulation of RTP packets is specified.

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Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
2. RTP and RTCP Packet Forms and Protocol Behavior