Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
7.1.1. The charset parameter

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7.1.1. The charset parameter

7.1.1. The charset parameter

A critical parameter that may be specified in the Content-Type field for text/plain data is the character set. This is specified with a "charset" parameter, as in:

        Content-type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii

Unlike some other parameter values, the values of the charset parameter are NOT case sensitive. The default character set, which must be assumed in the absence of a charset parameter, is US-ASCII.

The specification for any future subtypes of "text" must specify whether or not they will also utilize a "charset" parameter, and may possibly restrict its values as well. When used with a particular body, the semantics of the "charset" parameter should be identical to those specified here for "text/plain", i.e., the body consists entirely of characters in the given charset. In particular, definers of future text subtypes should pay close attention the the implications of multibyte character sets for their subtype definitions.

This RFC specifies the definition of the charset parameter for the purposes of MIME to be a unique mapping of a byte stream to glyphs, a mapping which does not require external profiling information.

An initial list of predefined character set names can be found at the end of this section. Additional character sets may be registered with IANA, although the standardization of their use requires the usual IESG [RFC-1340] review and approval. Note that if the specified character set includes 8-bit data, a Content-Transfer- Encoding header field and a corresponding encoding on the data are required in order to transmit the body via some mail transfer protocols, such as SMTP.

The default character set, US-ASCII, has been the subject of some confusion and ambiguity in the past. Not only were there some ambiguities in the definition, there have been wide variations in practice. In order to eliminate such ambiguity and variations in the future, it is strongly recommended that new user agents explicitly specify a character set via the Content-Type header field. "US- ASCII" does not indicate an arbitrary seven-bit character code, but specifies that the body uses character coding that uses the exact correspondence of codes to characters specified in ASCII. National use variations of ISO 646 [ISO-646] are NOT ASCII and their use in Internet mail is explicitly discouraged. The omission of the ISO 646 character set is deliberate in this regard. The character set name of "US-ASCII" explicitly refers to ANSI X3.4-1986 [US-ASCII] only. The character set name "ASCII" is reserved and must not be used for any purpose.

      NOTE: RFC 821 explicitly specifies "ASCII", and references an
      earlier version of the American Standard.  Insofar as one of the
      purposes of specifying a Content-Type and character set is to
      permit the receiver to unambiguously determine how the sender
      intended the coded message to be interpreted, assuming anything
      other than "strict ASCII" as the default would risk unintentional
      and incompatible changes to the semantics of messages now being
      transmitted.  This also implies that messages containing
      characters coded according to national variations on ISO 646, or
      using code-switching procedures (e.g., those of ISO 2022), as well
      as 8-bit or multiple octet character encodings MUST use an
      appropriate character set specification to be consistent with this

The complete US-ASCII character set is listed in [US-ASCII]. Note that the control characters including DEL (0-31, 127) have no defined meaning apart from the combination CRLF (ASCII values 13 and 10) indicating a new line. Two of the characters have de facto meanings in wide use: FF (12) often means "start subsequent text on the beginning of a new page"; and TAB or HT (9) often (though not always) means "move the cursor to the next available column after the current position where the column number is a multiple of 8 (counting the first column as column 0)." Apart from this, any use of the control characters or DEL in a body must be part of a private agreement between the sender and recipient. Such private agreements are discouraged and should be replaced by the other capabilities of this document.

      NOTE: Beyond US-ASCII, an enormous proliferation of character sets
      is possible. It is the opinion of the IETF working group that a
      large number of character sets is NOT a good thing.  We would
      prefer to specify a single character set that can be used
      universally for representing all of the world's languages in
      electronic mail.  Unfortunately, existing practice in several
      communities seems to point to the continued use of multiple
      character sets in the near future.  For this reason, we define
      names for a small number of character sets for which a strong
      constituent base exists.

The defined charset values are:

        US-ASCII -- as defined in [US-ASCII].

        ISO-8859-X -- where "X" is to be replaced, as necessary, for the
             parts of ISO-8859 [ISO-8859].  Note that the ISO 646
             character sets have deliberately been omitted in favor of
             their 8859 replacements, which are the designated character
             sets for Internet mail.  As of the publication of this
             document, the legitimate values for "X" are the digits 1
             through 9.

The character sets specified above are the ones that were relatively uncontroversial during the drafting of MIME. This document does not endorse the use of any particular character set other than US-ASCII, and recognizes that the future evolution of world character sets remains unclear. It is expected that in the future, additional character sets will be registered for use in MIME.

Note that the character set used, if anything other than US-ASCII, must always be explicitly specified in the Content-Type field.

No other character set name may be used in Internet mail without the publication of a formal specification and its registration with IANA, or by private agreement, in which case the character set name must begin with "X-".

Implementors are discouraged from defining new character sets for mail use unless absolutely necessary.

The "charset" parameter has been defined primarily for the purpose of textual data, and is described in this section for that reason. However, it is conceivable that non-textual data might also wish to specify a charset value for some purpose, in which case the same syntax and values should be used.

In general, mail-sending software must always use the "lowest common denominator" character set possible. For example, if a body contains only US-ASCII characters, it must be marked as being in the US-ASCII character set, not ISO-8859-1, which, like all the ISO-8859 family of character sets, is a superset of US-ASCII. More generally, if a widely-used character set is a subset of another character set, and a body contains only characters in the widely-used subset, it must be labeled as being in that subset. This will increase the chances that the recipient will be able to view the mail correctly.

Next: 7.1.2. The Text/plain subtype

Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia
7.1.1. The charset parameter