0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | CNAME=1 | length | user and domain name ... +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
The CNAME identifier has the following properties:
Therefore, the CNAME should be derived algorithmically and not entered manually, when possible. To meet these requirements, the following format should be used unless a profile specifies an alternate syntax or semantics. The CNAME item should have the format "user@host", or "host" if a user name is not available as on single- user systems. For both formats, "host" is either the fully qualified domain name of the host from which the real-time data originates, formatted according to the rules specified in RFC 1034 , RFC 1035  and Section 2.1 of RFC 1123 ; or the standard ASCII representation of the host's numeric address on the interface used for the RTP communication. For example, the standard ASCII representation of an IP Version 4 address is "dotted decimal", also known as dotted quad. Other address types are expected to have ASCII representations that are mutually unique. The fully qualified domain name is more convenient for a human observer and may avoid the need to send a NAME item in addition, but it may be difficult or impossible to obtain reliably in some operating environments. Applications that may be run in such environments should use the ASCII representation of the address instead.
Examples are "email@example.com" or "firstname.lastname@example.org" for a multi-user system. On a system with no user name, examples would be "sleepy.megacorp.com" or "192.0.2.89".
The user name should be in a form that a program such as "finger" or "talk" could use, i.e., it typically is the login name rather than the personal name. The host name is not necessarily identical to the one in the participant's electronic mail address.
This syntax will not provide unique identifiers for each source if an application permits a user to generate multiple sources from one host. Such an application would have to rely on the SSRC to further identify the source, or the profile for that application would have to specify additional syntax for the CNAME identifier.
If each application creates its CNAME independently, the resulting CNAMEs may not be identical as would be required to provide a binding across multiple media tools belonging to one participant in a set of related RTP sessions. If cross-media binding is required, it may be necessary for the CNAME of each tool to be externally configured with the same value by a coordination tool.
Application writers should be aware that private network address assignments such as the Net-10 assignment proposed in RFC 1597  may create network addresses that are not globally unique. This would lead to non-unique CNAMEs if hosts with private addresses and no direct IP connectivity to the public Internet have their RTP packets forwarded to the public Internet through an RTP-level translator. (See also RFC 1627 .) To handle this case, applications may provide a means to configure a unique CNAME, but the burden is on the translator to translate CNAMEs from private addresses to public addresses if necessary to keep private addresses from being exposed.