**Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia**

*2. Terminology and Notation*

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Requests For Comments

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RFC 1321

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### 2. Terminology and Notation

2. Terminology and Notation
In this document a "word" is a 32-bit quantity and a "byte" is an
eight-bit quantity. A sequence of bits can be interpreted in a
natural manner as a sequence of bytes, where each consecutive group
of eight bits is interpreted as a byte with the high-order (most
significant) bit of each byte listed first. Similarly, a sequence of
bytes can be interpreted as a sequence of 32-bit words, where each
consecutive group of four bytes is interpreted as a word with the
low-order (least significant) byte given first.

Let x_i denote "x sub i". If the subscript is an expression, we
surround it in braces, as in x_{i+1}. Similarly, we use ^ for
superscripts (exponentiation), so that x^i denotes x to the i-th
power.

Let the symbol "+" denote addition of words (i.e., modulo-2^32
addition). Let X <<< s denote the 32-bit value obtained by circularly
shifting (rotating) X left by s bit positions. Let not(X) denote the
bit-wise complement of X, and let X v Y denote the bit-wise OR of X
and Y. Let X xor Y denote the bit-wise XOR of X and Y, and let XY
denote the bit-wise AND of X and Y.

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**Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia**

*2. Terminology and Notation*